Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (TOPV)

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What is TOPV?

• Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. The first was developed by Jonas Salk, first tested in 1952, and announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955. It consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. The second was an oral vaccine developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated. Human trials of Sabin’s vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962.

• Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (TOPV or Sabin) and Inactive Polio Vaccine (IPV or Salk) protect the child against poliomyelitis

• Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine is liquid vaccine that is provided in two types of containers;

1. Small plastic dropper bottles.

2. Glass vials with dropper in a separate plastic bag.

 

WHO does not – as of July 2003 – recommend the adoption of IPV, either alone or in a sequential schedule, in developing countries for the following reasons:

1. Unresolved issues related to immunogenicity of IPV when administered at birth, six, ten and ten 14 weeks of age in the EPI vaccination schedule.

2. High cost of IPV:

– the operational complexities of introducing a vaccine, which requires syringes and needles in infants until new combination products, are available, while OPV is given orally.

– The price of IPV is over 5 times that of OPV.

– Administering of IPV requires trained health workers

Notes:

• IPV (Salk) is one of the recommended childhood immunizations and vaccination should begin during infancy. given subcutaneously via injection two doses in 1.2 the first month.

 

Administration Summary of TOPV

Type of vaccine Live oral polio vaccine (OPV)
Number of doses Four in endemic countries (including birth dose)
Schedule At birth 6, 10, 14, weeks

Palestine 2,4,6,12 month

Booster Supplementary doses given during polio eradication activities
Contraindication None
Adverse reaction vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) very rarely (approximately 2 to 4 cases per million children vaccinated).
Special precaution Children known to have rare congenital immune deficiency syndromes should receive IPV rather than OPV.
Dosage 2 drops some vials the dose may be 3 drop

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