Anemia is deficiency in the:
- Number of RBC’s (erythrocytes)
- The quantity of Hemoglobin (Hb)
- The volume of packed RBC (Hematocrit)
- Haemorrhage – trauma, bleeding peptic ulcer, heavy menstrual flow.
- Reduced RBC production – diet: inadequate intake of iron, protein, vit.B12. Absence of intrinsic factors.
- Excessive RBC destruction: Blood incompatibility, Thalassemia.
Age group—late adult.
Sex-m (hemophilia); F (menorrhagia).
Race—black Americans, Indians, middle East
Anemia Diagnostic tests
- CBC- total no. of each cell.
- WBC and differentials — total no. of WBC and no. of each cell.
- Hgb—men 14-18g/dl, women 12-16g/dl
- Platelet count —150,000-350,000/100ml of blood.
- Hematocrit – packed cell volume (PCV).
- Hgb –electrophoresis -sickling test
- Bone marrow puncture — bone marrow is removed from the sternum with a needle and the no. of cells are examined.
- Anaesthesia is given. After the test, apply pressure dressing. Check for bleeding.
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA:
- Genetic blood disorder
- Hgb forms lumps in RBC. RBCs form sickle shape (cannot move thru smaller blood vessels
- Low O2 from high altitude or strenuous exercise
Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.
Common reactions for Sickle Cells
- Swelling and pain in the joint
- Decrease urinary output
- Abdominal or chest pain
- Tarry, coffee ground stool
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Mental depression
- Difficulty concentrating
- Dark urine- brownish
Sickle cell crisis (complication)
- Upper respiratory infection
- Vasoocclusion-clumps of RBC
- Obstruct blood vessels
- Severe joint pain, abdominal pain and pain and swelling of hands and feet.
Affected Organs :
- Brain-headache, dizziness, convulsion.
- Lung—SOB, coughing.
- Kidney—reduced urine.
Effects of sickle cell anaemia
- Brain –stroke
- Heart failure.
- Gall bladder stone
- Renal failure
- Hemathrosis -bleeding into joints.
Management for sickle cell disease
- Hydration -IV fluids
- Bed rest
- Analgesics -morphine
- Blood transfusion
- Bone marrow transplant