Poisoning in children is always an accident due to carelessness in leaving poisonous substance within the reach of children. This include cleaning agent, detergents, bleachs,insectiside,heavy metals, paint solvent,kerosene,cosmetic preparation, drugs.
1- The first step is to identify the poison if this can be done quickly, the mother may see the container from which the child took the poison.
2- The vomitus should be saved for the physician inspection.
3- The urine should be kept for examination.
4- A characteristic odor on the child breath may be helpful.
Management at home:-
The immediate procedure is to induce vomiting in all cases except:
1- If the child is comatose.
2- Petrolium poisoning.
3- Poisoning with corrosive material.
– After that the child should be taken immediately to a physician.
Management at hospital:-
1- Induce vomiting using syrup of ipecac or do gastric lavage if it is advisable.
2- The antidote is given.
3-Oxygen and parenteral fluid are given.
Responsibility of nurse:-
1- Should prevent the anxious parent from over stimulating the child.
2- The nurse will save all the vomitus and urine specimen for laboratory examination.
3- The nurse assist the physician with gastric lavage.
Contraindication of gastric lavage:-
1- In case of coma.
2- Petroleum poisoning or its derivative.
3- Corrosive material.
4- Supportive therapy to increase the effectiveness of removing the poison and giving a specific antidote.
5- The nurse must watch for any evidence of CNS stimulation or depression.
6- Emotional support.