Groups and Teams
- A number of individuals assembled together or having some unifying relationships.
- All the parents in a preparatory school.
- All the students in the fourth level at the school of Nursing.
Definition of Team:
Teams are groups that have defined goals, objectives and ongoing relationships and are focused on accomplishing a task.
– Teams are important in providing cost effective high quality health care.
– When teams work effectively there is a significant difference in the entire work atmosphere.
– The way in which discussion progress.
– The level of understanding of team specific goals and tasks.
– Willingness of members to listen.
– The manner disagreements are handled.
– The use of Consensus.
– The way feedback is given and received.
Size of Teams
– Team of four to seven people are the most likely to provide a positive experience for members
Characteristics of Ineffective Team:
– Few members are dominating leaving others bored, resentful or uninvolved.
– Leadership tends to be autocratic and rigid.
– The team communication style maybe overly stiff and formal.
– Members tend to be uncomfortable with conflict or disagreement.
– Members avoid or suppress conflict rather than utilizing it as a catalyst for change.
– When criticism is offered it may be destructive personal and hurtful rather than constructive and problem centered.
– Team members begin to stuff their feelings of resentment or disagreement sensing that they are " dangerous "
– This creates the potential for later eruptions and discord.
– Similarly the team avoids examining its own inner workings or members may wait until after meetings to voice their thoughts and feelings about what went wrong and why.
Characteristics of Effective Team:
– Have a clear defined purpose.
– Civilized disagreement.
– Consensus decisions.
– Clear roles and work assignments.
– Shared leadership.
– Diversity of styles.
– Self assessment and self regulation
What is teamwork?
Team work is a group of people working together on the basis of :
1. Shared perceptions.
2. A common purpose.
3. A greed procedures.
5. Resolving disagreements openly
6. by discussion.
This will not happen automatically.
– Team work has to be managed, if it is to be effective.
Benefits of Team Work:
1. A greening aims.
2. Clarifying roles.
3. Sharing expertise and skills.
4. Maximizing use of resources.
5. Motivating, supporting an encouraging members of the team
6. Improving relationships within the team.
7. Encouraging decision-making.
8. Increasing participation.
9. Releasing individual potentials.
10. Improving communication.
11. Increasing knowledge and understanding.
12. Reducing stress and anxiety.
Nursing Teamwork and Team Building
– In-order to be considered a team, the group must have some stability of membership and a common purpose … that is, they function as inter-related parts of the hole team. “Interdependency”
– People who work independently of each other, with little communication, coordination or shared responsibility, are not working as a team.
Types of teams
Teams are categorized according to :
– skills, experience, and qualification of members.
– Ex. Nursing team composed of BSN – RN – PLN .
2- Purpose :
– the purpose of the team or the kind of work it dose it often indicated by the team’s name .
– Ex. Surgical team – medical team – X-ray team .
3- Function :
– some team function in the community, others in hospitals, and other in emergency situation .
4- Leadership :
– leadership in most team can be divided into 3 categories, according to the way in which person become a leader of the team .
a- Designated leader :
nchosen by the team or by administration .
nusually have clear role and responsibilities .
nhave more permanent position .
b- Emergent leader :
nassigned himself as leader .
nusually have special traits that make him a leader .
c- Situational leader :
ntemporary, according to the situation .
Advantages and disadvantages of Teamwork :
– leader team and working as a member of team presents a number of difficulties and challenges as well as benefits.
– while they can’t actually work in total isolation from other people in any health care setting. There are some people who prefer to work independently rather than interdependently
1. Best use of skills :
– when people with complementary skills are brought together on team, each one is able to contribute own skills, experience and view points to the task on hand .
– with the right combination of skills , a highly functional team can manage
– more complex situation , provide more comprehensive care and produce more creative ideas .
2. Coordination :
team work demands that team members communicate with each other …effective communication reduce duplication of efforts .
3. Synergy :
when people work well together , combining their energies to complete a task .. has a synergetic effect in which each one stimulate and reinforce the others .
4. Flexibility :
team members help each other and substitute for each other in an emergency .
5. Support :
– emotional support and actual assistance
– manage anxiety and release tension
6. increased commitment :
team’s members who are involved in setting team’s objectives and deciding how they will be met , are more committed to the successful completion of objectives .
7. evaluation feedback :
– quality of performance is more apparent
– membrane can serve as voluble source of helpful feedback
8. Opportunity for growth :
– including development of interpersonal and leadership skills
– because members work closely together and share more of their experiences , … this provides an opportunity to expend members knowledge and skills.
1. Demands interpersonal skills
– effective team work requires a considerable amount of interpersonal skills from members and leaders .. without these skills , team work can be frustrating , discouraging , energy consuming ( improper selection of team members )
– some people prefer to work independently.
2. Conflict :
differences in culture , experience , norms , evaluation , skills , status and pay are sources of conflict .
3. Time Demands :
– type of leader ship style affects the time needed for decision
– democratic …long time , faster acceptance
– Autocratic … faster decision, longer time for acceptance .. .
4- Reduced Autonomy :
– The person who values independent work find it difficult to adapt ;and work in a team.
5- Increased Scrutiny:
– a person who works alone can hide mistakes and inadequacies
– Working in. a team can be threatening to many people, especially to professionals who feel they should be perfect and not make mistakes
Stages of Team Development
1) Forming stage: (immature team ) :
– Members of the team looking to the leader for directions, support and task definition (low involvement in planning )
– Low level of productivity-’.., high level of leader centered. .behavior,(1eadertakcs the decisions)
– Anxiety about task and relationship to each other (feelings are not :dealt with yet .)
2. Storming stage: (fractionated team )
– Communication difficulties and struggles about leadership and influence in the team
– Unsure about roles, relationships and accountability
– A gap between initial expectations and reality of the situation
– Dissatisfaction… losing some team members
– Increased concerns for others
– increased listening and options
3) Norming Stage : (Sharing Team)
– Getting organized, developing skill .
– Establishing systems, procedures and ground rules . . .
– Open exchange of feelings, facts ideas and values .
– Less dissatisfaction. Less conflict and increase trust and respect
4. Performing Stage: (the effective team)
– members enjoy the experience of being part of a wining team
– Appropriate leadership
– Development of priorities
- High flexibility ,sharing ,tolerance, and major needs of members are met
– Feel confident about their ability achieve and support each other’s effort
– Systemically review its goals, or organization and procedures
– Members provide each other with constructive feedback
– Maximum use of energy and abilities (toward goal achievement)
5- Mourning Stage :
– ending with suffering this is a time for celebration ,and closure
– optimistic discussion of future challenges can take place
Four areas of concern :
– Team works that are effective both in terms of their task productivity and members satisfaction generally made progress’ in each of the following 4areas of activity .
– Clearly defined and well communicated statement of purpose
– Work is managed against goals / objectives . ,
– Plans are developed collaboratively
– The work of the effective team is organized in such a way as to support the achievement of the team goals
– Roles, reporting, relationships and accountabilities are clear
– The style of leadership is appropriate for the task to be performed
– Individuals are generally technically qualified to perform their roles and training plans are clearly developed .
3- interpersonal relationships:
– Typically, effective teams enjoy a high quality of internal relationships
– Individuals trust each other and as a result, relate in an open manner
– Satisfactory personal feelings
– A sense of team spirit prevails the work of the team –
– remember ( No team ‘is in an island… an effective team have to establish supportive relationships with other teams )
4- Procedure / Process :
– effective teams have generally developed internal operating systems and procedure that satisfy both the task and relationships
– operating procedure include such activities as problem- solving , decision making m information sharing , coordination and conflict management .
Functional Versus Dysfunctional Members
– Passive observer
Necessary Team Leader Skills
– Written and verbal communication skills
– Sensitivity to different cultures and values
– Awareness of others’ abilities
– Genuine interest in team members
– Open and objective communication style
– Planning and coordination skills
– Involves others
– Acknowledges contributions and accomplishments of team members
– Operates effectively as a team leader and as a team member