Nursing care plan of Encephalitis


Definition of Encephalitis

It is an inflammatory process of central nervous system producing altered function of various portions of the brain and spinal cord.


Causes of Encephalitis

► Virus through direct invasion of CNS by virus or post-infectious with virus.

► Bacterial infection.

► Fungi infection.

Manifestations of Encephalitis

Onset is sudden or gradual

1. Malaise.

2. Fever.

3. Headache, dizziness.

4. Apathy.

5. Neck stiffness.

6. Nausea and vomiting.

7. Ataxia.

8. Tremors, hyperactivity.

9. Speech difficulties.

In severe cases:

1. High fever.

2. Stupor.

3. Disorientation, spasticity.

4. Seizures, coma (may proceed to death).

5. Ocular palsies.

6. Paralysis.


Diagnostic Tests of Encephalitis

► Lumber puncture.

► Brain biopsy.


Therapeutic management of Encephalitis

► Children must be treated in the hospital for observation and skilled nursing care.

► Supportive treatment for adequate hydration, control of cerebral manifestations and adequate nutrition.

► Rehabilitation therapy for residual effect of the disease.


Prognosis of Encephalitis

► It depends on child’s age, type of organisms and residual neurological damage.

► Very young children may show increased neurologic disability which includes seizures disorders and learning disabilities.


Nursing care of Encephalitis

► Same as for a child with meningitis (the major aspects of the care are neurological monitoring, administeration of medications, emotional support for the child and family).

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