Newborn(Neonate) Lecture for Nursing

– The first hour of life is important for child .
Mortality rate increase in the first hour because:
1- Prematurity.
2- Immaturity.
3- Congenital malformation.
4- Birth injury e.g:forceps delivery.
5- Asphyxia.
Characteristic of Newborn
– Physiological temperature = 36.1-37.7
Pulse : rapid and irregular more than 100\min.
Respiration: deep ,fast and irregular=35-50\min.
dyspnoea and cyanosis may occur, this is normal.
Skin of newborn
– The skin of white baby is red to dark pink in colour.
– The skin of black baby is reddish brown.
Lanug hair: fine hair distributed in the shoulder and back ,sometimes extremities, disappear in the first week.
Vernix caseosa: a cheese like substance that cover the skin(yellowish, sometime white in colour.
Mongolian spots : bluish discoloration of the skin usually occur at lower part of buttock, disappear during the first year.

Milia : white pinpoint papules caused by obstruction of sebaceous glands, may be seen on the nose and chin, disappear within a few weeks.
Tissue turgor :-refers to the condition of the skin in regard to how hydrated or dehydrated the newborn.
Anterior fontanel : diamond shape cartilaginous substance located at the junction of 2parietal bone and 2frontal bone(width = 2-3Cm,length = 3-4Cm)is closed at 12-18month.
Posterior fontanel : triangular shape cartilaginous substance located between occipital and parietal bone, small in size closed at 2-4months.
Neck: floppy(no neck support).
Chest: at birth the same circumference with abdomen. 2Cm less than head.
Back: should be straight.
Nails: fine straight fingers ,no adhesion.

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