A- Either across the placenta from mother to fetus e.g:rubella ,C.M.V ,toxoplasmosis
syphilis ,hepatitis B,and T.B .
B – Ascending infection through birth canal e.g :streptococcus ,G-v E.coli due to
premature rupture of membrane or use of unsteralized instrument.
– Predisposing Factors to neonatal infection :
1) Low birth weight and prematurity.
2) Hypothermia (cold injury).
3) Prolonged rupture of membrane.
4) Congenital malformation.
5) Contaminated utensils and contaminated disinfectant.
7) Baby of diabetic mother.
8) Presence of focus of infection e.g :staph-sticking eye.
9) Presence of staphylococcus nasal carrier.
– Clinical presentation
difficult feeding, rise in body temperature or hypothermia which indicate bad prognosis, abdominal distention ,vomiting ,jaundice ,convulsion ,bleeding from any site, respiratory distress ,apnea ,hypoglycemia.
Do infection screening:-
1- culture from the nose ,throat ,ear, skin ,umbilical stump, gastric aspirate.
2- blood culture.
3- chest x-ray.
4- CSF examination and culture.
5- complete blood picture e.g :if leucopenia indicate poor prognosis.
Give combination of antibiotics against G+ve and G-ve organism e.g:crystalline penicillin +Garamycin or Ampicillin +Garamycin .If you suspect staphylococcal infection add cloxacillin.
It means purulent discharge from the eyes within first 2 weeks.
Prevention : clean the eye immediately, apply 1% silver nitrate or tetracycline
Neonatal Tetanus is responsible for 20% of neonatal death in developing