Measles Vaccine

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What is measles vaccine?

• Measles vaccine is provided as a powder, with diluents in a separate vial. Before it can be used, it must be reconstituted. it is essential that only the diluents supplied with the vaccine be used. After reconstitution measles vaccine should be kept at 2C-8C.

• Any remaining reconstituted vaccine must be discarded after six hours or at the end of the immunization session, whichever comes first.

• In countries where Vitamin A deficiency is common, vitamin A supplements are often given at the same time as the vaccine. In addition, some countries include vaccine foe rubella with measles vaccine(MR) or use a combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine.

 

How safe is measles vaccine and what are its potential side effect?

Mild reaction to the vaccine are not uncommon. these included:

– Soreness: some children may experience pain and tenderness at injection site within 24 hours of immunization. In most cases, these reactions will resolve within two or three days without any medical attention.

– Fever: about 5% of children develop a moderate fever 5 to 12 days after receiving the vaccine. It usually lasts a day or two.

– Rash: about one in 20 children develop a mild rash 5 to 12 days receiving the vaccine. The rash usually lasts a day or two.

 Sever reactions to measles vaccine are rare;

– Anaphylaxis has been estimated to occur one for every million doses

– severe allergic reaction can occur once every 100,000 doses

– one cases of thrombocytopenia for every 30,000 doses.

– Encephalitis has been reported to occur in more than one per million

– doses administrated and, even in such cases, there is no definite proof that the vaccine was the causes.

Notes:

• Infant at high risk (HIV-infected, in closed communities such as refugee camps, or in the presence of an outbreak) may receive a doses at 6 months of age by an extra dose at 9 month

 

Administration Summary of Measles vaccine

Type of vaccine

Live attenuated viral

Number of doses

One dose. Second opportunity not less than one month after first dose

Schedule

At 9 – 11 months of age in countries where measles is highly endemic, later in countries with high levels of control or low mortality.

In 9 months and 15 month given MMR

Booster

A second opportunity for measles immunization is recommended (routine or campaign)

Contraindication

Sever reaction to pervious dose: pregnancy; congenital or acquired immune disorders (not HIV infection)

Adverse reaction

Same as measles vaccine, plus cases of arthritis in adolescent females for rubella – containing vaccine and parotitis; rarely aseptic meningitis with mumps – containing vaccines may occur

Special precaution

None

Dosage

0.5ml

Injection site

Outer mid-thigh in infant / outer upper arm if older

Injection type

Subcutaneous

Storage

vaccine may be frozen for long – term storage but not the diluents

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