Male Infertility

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Causes of Male Infertility

1. Testicular Impairments

– Bilateral anorchia.

– Cryptorchidism.

– Varicocele.

– Sertoli cell-only syndrome.

– Chemotherapy & Radiotherapy.

– Drugs (Alcohol, Smoking, Caffeine).

– Systemic illness (e.g. Liver cirrhosis).

– Orchitis (e.g. Post pubertal mumps).

– Immunologic.

– Idiopathic.

 

2. Hormonal

– Pituitary gland disease (FSH,LH,Prolactine).

– Thyroid gland abnormalities.

– Glucocorticoid excess.

3. Genetic Abnormalities

– Klinefilter’s Syndrome.

– Down’s Syndrome.

4. Ductal Obstruction

5. Ejaculatory Problems

– Retrograde ejaculation

Clinical Examination of Male Infertility

1. General Examination.

2. Genital Examination.

– Testis.

– Spermatic cord.

3. DRE.

 

Investigations for Male Infertility

A. Laboratory Evaluation

1. Routine lab work.

2. Endocrine evaluation.

• Testosterone ,LH ,FSH and Prolactin.

3. Semen Analysis.

• Concentration, Motility, Morphology and Pus.

B. Radiologic Procedures

1. Scrotal U/S.

2. Doppler study.

3. TRUS.

C. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).

D. Testicular Biopsy.

Treatment for Male Infertility

A. Treat the cause.

B. Assisted Reproductive Techniques:

1. Intrauterine Insemination.

2. In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF).

3. Intracytoplasmic Insemination (ICSI).

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