Individuals At Risk for Inadequate Nutrition


• Older adults who are socially isolated or living on fixed incomes

• Children of economically deprived parents

• Pregnant teenagers

• People with substance abuse problems such as alcoholism

• Clients with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

Needed Dietary Adjustments Needed:

• Age

• Weight and height

• Growth periods

• Activity

• Health status

Calorie or Kilocalorie

• Amount of heat that raises the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade

• The energy value of food

• Kilocalorie (1000 calories, or the amount of heat that raises the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade)


• A component of every living cell

• Composed of amino acids

• Essential amino acids are protein components that must come from food

• Nonessential amino acids are protein components manufactured within the body

• The body uses protein to build, maintain, and repair tissue


• Nutrients that contain molecules of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

• Classified according to the number of sugar (saccharide) units

• Chief component of most diets

• Primary source of quick energy


• Nutrients that contain molecules composed of glycerol and fatty acids called glycerides or lipids

• Concentrated energy source

• Supplies twice the calories per gram than proteins or carbohydrates.

• Necessary for the absorption of some vitamins


• Absorbs fatty acids and binds them to molecules of protein referred to as lipoproteins

• Lipoproteins are a combination of fats and proteins

• High density lipoproteins-Good cholesterol

• Low density lipoproteins-Bad cholesterol

• Saturated fats-Lipids that contain hydrogen and are solid

• Unsaturated fats-Lips missing some hydrogen and are liquid at room temperature

• Trans fats-Unsaturated fats that have been hydrogenated and are solid at room temperature

Health Risks of Fat and Cholesterol

• Obesity

• Heart disease

• Hypertension

• Diabetes

• Cancer

Minerals and Vitamins

• Minerals are noncaloric substances in food that are essential to all cells and regulate the body’s chemical processes.

• Vitamins are fat soluble or water soluble and are necessary for normal growth, maintenance of health, and body function.

Nutrition Status Assessment and Nursing care plan

• Diet history-Obtain facts about client’s eating habits and factors that affect nutrition

• Objective Data-physical assessment, laboratory data, anthropometric data, body measurements

• Anthropometric data-measurements of body size and composition

• Mid-arm circumference-determine skeletal muscle mass

• Physical assessment

• Laboratory data-CBC, Protein, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, Lipoprotein

Nursing Diagnosis

• Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements

• Imbalanced Nutrition: More than Body Requirements

• Deficient Knowledge: Nutrition

• Self-care Deficit: Feeding

• Impaired Swallowing

• Risk for Aspiration

Alterations in Nutrition

• Obesity

• Emaciation

• Anorexia

• Nausea and Vomiting

• Stomach Gas

Common Hospital Diets

• Regular or general-unrestricted food selections

• Light or convalescent-omits fried, fatty, gas-forming and raw foods, rich pastries

• Soft-foods soft in texture, low residue, easily digestible without spices, fewer fruits, vegetables, or meats

• Mechanical soft-used for clients with chewing difficulty, precooked fruits, vegetables, and ground meats

• Full liquid-fruit and vegetable juice, gelatin, custard, ice cream

• Clear liquid-water, clear broth, clear fruit juices, tea, coffee

• Special therapeutic-low sodium, fat, or fiber

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Posted in Fundamental Nursing, General

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