GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY Basic Lecture for Nursing

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Pharmacology Basics

• Indications

– The reasons for administering a medication or performing a treatment

• Contra-indications

– A factor that prevents the use of a medication or treatment (eg. Allergies)

• Dose

– The amount of a drug to be administered at one time

• Mechanism of Action

– How a drug works

Medication Names

• Chemical Name

– describes the drug’s chemical structure

• Generic Name

– reflects the chemical name, but in shorter form

Routes of Administration

• Sublingual

– Under the tongue

• Nitroglycerin

• Oral

– The drug is swallowed and absorbed through the stomach and intestinal tract

• Oral Glucose

• Aspirin

Medication Forms

• Tablets

– compressed powder shaped into a disk

• Aspirin

• Nitroglycerin

• Liquid for Injections

– liquid with no particulate matter

• Epinephrine

• Gel

– viscous substance that the patient swallows

• Oral Glucose

• Suspension

– drug particles mixed in a solute

• Activated Charcoal

• Fine powder for Inhalation

– a crystalline solid mixed with liquid to form a suspension

• Albuterol by hand-held metered-dose inhaler

• Gas

– Oxygen by mask

• Spray

– Nitroglycerin sub-lingual spray

• Liquid/vaporized

– Albuterol by small-volume nebulizer

Steps to Administering Medication

• Obtain an Order

• Confirm Order

• Select Proper Medication

– Avoid contamination

– Check Expiration Date

– Check For Signs of Contamination

• Discoloration

• Cloudiness

• Particulate Matter

• Verify Form & Route

• Inform Patient of Order

– Inquire about allergies

• Recheck Medication

– Expiration date

– Contamination

– At least two more times after initial check

• Assess Patient prior to administration of the drug

• Administer the correct dose by the correct route

• Dispose of Contaminated Equipment

• Reassess After Administration

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