Congenital Heart Disease CHD

Congenital Heart Disease
Congenital heart disease
The incidence of congenital heart disease is 4-10/1000 live births.
– The etiology is unknown, however several factors are associated with higher
incidence:
1- Maternal rubella during pregnancy.
2- Maternal alcoholism.
3- Maternal age over 40 years.
4- Maternal insulin dependent diabetes.
Classification of congenital heart disease
1) Acyanotic congenital heart disease:
a- Increase pulmonary blood flow e.g :ASD ,VSD ,PDA ,AV canal.
b- Obstruction to blood flow from ventricles e.g :coarctation of aorta, aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis.
2) Cyanotic congenital heart disease:
a- Decrease pulmonary blood flow e.g :tetra logy of fallot,tricuspid atresia.
b- Mixed blood flow e.g :transposition of great vessels, total anomalous pulmonary venous return,truncus arteriosus,hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
ATERIAL SEPTAL DEFECT (ASD)
Abnormal opening between the atria allowing blood from the higher pressure(left atrium) to flow into the lower pressure(right atrium).
Treatment:
surgical.
VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT (VSD)
Abnormal opening between the right and left ventricles, may vary in size from small pin hole to absence of the septum.
– Many VSD especially those in infants with small defects close spontaneously.
Treatment:
surgical repair of the shunt if not closed.
TETRALOGY OF FALLOT (TOF)
The classic form includes 4 defects:
1-  VSD.
2- Pulmonary Stenosis.
3- Over riding aorta.
4- Right ventricular hypertrophy.
Clinical manifestation:
*Infants: some infants may be acutely cyanotic at birth ,other have mild cyanosis that progress over the first year of life.
*Children: with increasing cyanosis there may be clubbing of the fingers,squating and poor growth.
Treatment:
surgical treatment is usually performed in the first year of life.

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Posted in Cardiovascular, Pediatrics

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