Bladder Cancer

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

• Haematuria.

• Anaemia.

• UTI (sterile cystitis).

• Pain.

Clinical Features of Bladder Cancer

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Histological Types of Bladder Cancer

1. Transitional Cell Ca. (most common).

2. Squamous Cell Ca.

3. Adenocarcinoma.

4. Seconderies.

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Spread of bladder cancer

1. Direct to adjacent organs.

2. lymphatic spread.

3. Heamatogenic spread.

Staging of Bladder Cancer :

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Investigations of Bladder Cancer

1. Urine cytology.

2. Ultrasound.

3. IV Urogram.

4. C .T./ MRI.

5. Urethrocystoscopy.

6. Bladder Biopsy.

Treatment of Bladder Cancer

1. TUR of Bladder tumor.

2. Intravesical Chemotherapy /Immunotherapy: (pTa, Cis,pT1).

3. Radical cystectomy with urinary diversion : (pT2,pT3a&b,pT4a&b).

4. Radiotherapy.

5. Chemotherapy.

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