ANEMIA OF INFANCY Anemia:-a deficit of erythrocyte or Hb%,it represent a disturbance in the balance between the production and destruction of these substance.
Types of anemia:
1- Inadequate production of Hb% or RBC.
a- lack in the bone marrow of some substance.
b- depressed function of bone marrow.
c- specific nutritional deficit in the bone marrow.
2- Excessive loss of blood cells.
- hemolysis:congenital or acquired.
varies with each type. When anemia is fatal ,it is usually because of weakness of the heart and it’s inability to maintain the normal circulation of blood.
Treatment and responsibility of the nurse:
- severity of the condition.
- causes of anemia.
- age of the patient.
- Iron is given if the cause of anemia is insufficient intake of iron or loss of iron through hemorrhage.
- Vitamin C is valuable in correction of anemia due to scurvy.
- Vitamin B-complex and folic acid for treatment of megaloblastic anemia.
B. Blood transfusion if indicated. It will improve child’s condition, appetite and activity.
Complication of blood transfusion:
- Transfusion reaction e.g:fever,rigor,backache,renal failure.
- Treatment: stop the blood and notify the doctor, give allermin,H.C.
- Disease transmitted by blood e.g:hepatitis C,B,Aids,syphlis and malaria.
- Cardiac failure which may be due to myocardial siderosis,or volume overload.
- Transfusion hemosiderosis(excessive deposition of iron in the tissue)
Nursing role during blood transfusion:
- The nurse should notice any evidence of transfusion reaction as fever, chills backache,colour and quantity of urine. Whenever the nurse notice these symptoms should stop the transfusion and notify the physician immediately.
- During blood transfusion care is taken to prevent pumping air bubbles through the needle and to prevent contamination.
- Splenectomy:may be performed for it’s palliative value or for removal of the pressure of an enlarged spleen on abdominal viscera.
- Good hygiene includes an adequate diet,rest,fresh air will help to build up the child resistance to infection. The child should be kept isolated from others who have cold, sore throat or other infection.