Affective Disorders and Nursing Role

affective-disorderAffective Disorders


Mood is defined as the persistent emotional state experienced by a person
Affect is defined as the external display of feelings.
Depression: defined as persistent low mood or sadness with loss of interest and pleasure from pleasurable activity for at least two  weeks duration.
Epidemiology: from 5-9.5% in USA
F=m equal to   2=1
Etiology
Genetic factors showed increased risk 5% to 25% in 1st degree relative
Also in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins.

Psychological factors
interpersonal loss (true or imaginary)
Cognitive distortion: that leads to negative misperception of the world leads to negative  emotions   towards self, others, and events.
Learned helplessness.

symptoms
-depressed mood, sad,
-loss of interest, loss of pleasure from pleasurable activity.
-Weight loss or gain.-
-Insomnia or hypersomnia.
-psychomotor agitation or retardation.
-fatigue.
-sense of worthlessness and guilt.
-poor concentration.
– Death wishes or suicide.

BIPOLAR DISORDER

Episodes of persistant elevated mood  (mood)that alternated with episoodes depressed mood (depression)
BIPOLAR MOOD DISORDER TYPES
TYPE 1 :
patient gets episodes of mania and commonly depression.
TYPE 2 : patient gets episodes of hypomania and commonly depression.
1% incidence ,  life time prevalence 0.4%-1.6%
Male=female
age of onset at early 20s

ETIOLOGY
Unknown.
Genetic factors are clear in some cases.
Some theories about failure of repression.
Symptoms of Mania
Persistent elevated,expansive or irritable mood
for at least 1week duration.
Inflated self esteem, grandiosity, diminish need to sleep,
Over activity (goal directed activities) pleasurable activities but with painful sequences e.g. spending money, hyper sexuality, business investment
Talkative
Flights of ideas,
Forced attention and distractibility.

Nursing role
Assessing the patient.
Getting collateral information from his or her familly.
Reassure the patient.
Ensure safety of patient and others.
Discuss treatment plan with the treating team.
Ensure compliance with management plan.
Reporting response of treatment and any side effects.

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Posted in Psychiatry and Psychology

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