Mood is defined as the persistent emotional state experienced by a person
Affect is defined as the external display of feelings.
Depression: defined as persistent low mood or sadness with loss of interest and pleasure from pleasurable activity for at least two weeks duration.
Epidemiology: from 5-9.5% in USA
F=m equal to 2=1
Genetic factors showed increased risk 5% to 25% in 1st degree relative
Also in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins.
interpersonal loss (true or imaginary)
Cognitive distortion: that leads to negative misperception of the world leads to negative emotions towards self, others, and events.
-depressed mood, sad,
-loss of interest, loss of pleasure from pleasurable activity.
-Weight loss or gain.-
-Insomnia or hypersomnia.
-psychomotor agitation or retardation.
-sense of worthlessness and guilt.
– Death wishes or suicide.
Episodes of persistant elevated mood (mood)that alternated with episoodes depressed mood (depression)
BIPOLAR MOOD DISORDER TYPES
TYPE 1 : patient gets episodes of mania and commonly depression.
TYPE 2 : patient gets episodes of hypomania and commonly depression.
1% incidence , life time prevalence 0.4%-1.6%
age of onset at early 20s
Genetic factors are clear in some cases.
Some theories about failure of repression.
Symptoms of Mania
Persistent elevated,expansive or irritable mood
for at least 1week duration.
Inflated self esteem, grandiosity, diminish need to sleep,
Over activity (goal directed activities) pleasurable activities but with painful sequences e.g. spending money, hyper sexuality, business investment
Flights of ideas,
Forced attention and distractibility.
Assessing the patient.
Getting collateral information from his or her familly.
Reassure the patient.
Ensure safety of patient and others.
Discuss treatment plan with the treating team.
Ensure compliance with management plan.
Reporting response of treatment and any side effects.