Isolation Techniques

Isolation Techniques

1. Isolation precautions are required for certain infected patients to prevent the spread of disease to other patients, staff, and visitors.

2. Isolation precautions are used to isolate the infection, not the patient.


Types of Isolation:

  • Strict isolation.
  • Contact isolation.
  • Respiratory isolation
  • Tuberculosis or acid-fast bacillus (AFB) isolation.
  • Enteric precautions
  • Drainage/secretion precautions

 

1. Strict Isolation

  • Designed for highly contagious infections that are spread by both airborne droplet nuclei and contact transmission.
  • Examples include:
  • varicella,
  • Disseminated herpes zoster,
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers.

 

Strict Isolation Technique

  • Private room.
  • With negative airflow.
  • The use of masks, gowns, and gloves for all persons entering the room.

 

2. Contact isolation

designed for highly transmissible infections that are not spread by airborne droplet nuclei but are transmitted primarily by close and direct contact.

Examples

  • viral respiratory infections in children, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
  • Patients with large draining wounds require contact precautions.

 

Contact isolation Technique

Technique includes :

  • Private room,
  • Masks for those personnel providing close direct care to the patient,
  • Gowns if soiling is likely,
  • Gloves for touching infective material.

 

3. Respiratory Isolation

designed to prevent transmission of diseases spread over short distances through the air (droplet transmission).

Examples include :

  • children with Haemophilus influenza,
  • epiglottitis,
  • meningitis,
  • pneumonia.
  • patients with serious meningococcal disease;
  • mumps and pertussis.

 

Respiratory Isolation

 

Respiratory Isolation Technique

Technique includes.

  • Private room.
  • Or cohering patients with the same organism.
  • And masks for those personnel providing close direct care to the patient.

 

4. Tuberculosis or Acid-fast Bacillus (AFB)

  • isolation—designed for patients suspected or known to have pulmonary or laryngeal tuberculosis.
  • technique includes a private room with negative airflow
  • and the use of appropriate respiratory protection (see tuberculosis).

 

5. Enteric precautions

  • designed to prevent infections that are transmitted by direct or indirect contact with fecal material,
  • such as Salmonella gastroenteritis.

 

Enteric precautions Technique

  • private room only if the patient has poor hygiene and is likely to contaminate the environment,
  • gowns if soiling is likely,
  • and gloves for touching infective material.

 

6. Drainage/secretion precautions

designed to prevent infections transmitted by direct or indirect contact with purulent material or other drainage from an infected body site.

Technique includes :

  • gowns if soiling is likely
  • and gloves for touching infective material.

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