It is a nutritional disorder which is especially harmful during infancy, the period when growth is most rapid.
Types of malnutrition :
1- Marasmus:-body weight is less than 60% of expected wt. without edema.
2- Kwashiorkor;-body wt. 60-80% of expected wt. with edema.
a- without edema with edema
b- alert depressed
c- normal colour red man
Causes of malnutrition
1- Inadequate diet due to poverty.
2- Feeding mismanagement.
3- Physical defect e.g. :cleft lip, cleft palate.
4- Chronic disease e .g :cardiac disease cystic fibrosis, chronic infection.
5- Emotional problem such as disturbed mother-child relations.
1- Dietary survey to establish the probability of malnutrition.
2- Symptoms of failure to thrive from measurement of wt., height or length, o.f.c.
3- Laboratory finding: C.B.P. may reveal hypo chromic anemia, plasma protein level is lowered.
2- nutritional anemia.
3- nutritional edema.
Approach to treatment of malnutrition:
1- Medical treatment.
2- Dietary treatment ——feeding ——minerals, vitamin supplement
3-Social and emotional——-education. —– show the family how to feed a child.
Treatment and responsibility of nurse:
1- Total parenteral alimentation: to provide an infusate of glucose, amino acid,electrolyte,vitamins.This solution is given through a catheter in the superior vena cava.
2- The nurse must notice any elevation in the temperature or hypothermia.
3- The nurse is also responsible for measuring urine output.
4- Daily weighing.
5- Initial oral feeding should be low in quantities and calories.
6- Small but frequent blood transfusion to correct anemia.
7- Vitamins A,B,C,D may be given.
8- Change the position frequently.
9- Should be isolated since his resistance is low.
10- He should be watched for sign of peripheral collapse.
11- Accurate detailed charting include the amount of feeding taken,refused,vomited,number and kind of stool and whether abdominal distention is present.
12- Treatment of infection.