It is a nutritional disorder which is especially harmful during infancy, the period when growth is most rapid.
Types of malnutrition :-
1-Marasmus:-body weight is less than 60% of expected wt. without edema.
2- Kwashiorkor;-body wt. 60-80% of expected wt. with edema.
a -without edema with edema
b -alert depressed
c- normal colour red man
Causes of malnutrition
1- Inadequate diet due to poverty.
2- Feeding mismanagement.
3- Physical defect e.g. :cleft lip, cleft palate.
4- Chronic disease e .g :cardiac disease cystic fibrosis, chronic infection.
5- Emotional problem such as disturbed mother-child relations.
1-Dietary survey to establish the probability of malnutrition.
2-Symptoms of failure to thrive from measurement of wt., height or length,
3-Laboratory finding: C.B.P. may reveal hypo chromic anemia, plasma
protein level is lowered.
Approach to treatment of malnutrition:-
2-Dietary treatment ——feeding
——minerals, vitamin supplement
3-Social and emotional——-education.
—– show the family how to feed a child.
Treatment and responsibility of nurse:-
1- Total parenteral alimentation: to provide an infusate of glucose, amino acid,electrolyte,vitamins.This solution is given through a catheter in the superior vena cava.
2- The nurse must notice any elevation in the temperature or hypothermia.
3- The nurse is also responsible for measuring urine output.
4- Daily weighing.
5- Initial oral feeding should be low in quantities and calories.
6- Small but frequent blood transfusion to correct anemia.
7- Vitamins A,B,C,D may be given.
8- Change the position frequently.
9- Should be isolated since his resistance is low.
10-He should be watched for sign of peripheral collapse.
11-Accurate detailed charting include the amount of feeding
taken,refused,vomited,number and kind of stool and whether
abdominal distention is present.
12-Treatment of infection.