Birth Asphyxia

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– Fetal or neonatal hypoxia,hypercapnea,poor cardiac out put and metabolic acidosis .Can result from one or a number of conditions affecting fetus, placenta or a mother whether in utero or after birth.
-Asphyxia cause hypoxic-ischemic brain injury results from reduced gaseous
exchange through placenta or through the lungs respectively.
Effects of Asphyxia:
1- CNS————-hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy(seizures,hypotonia or hypertonia).
2- Cardiovascular system—–myocardial ischemia, poor contractility,hypotention.
3- Pulmonary——————–respiratory distress.
4- Renal—————————acute tubular necrosis, adrenal hemorrhage.
5- Metabolic disturbance——e.g :-hypoglycemia,hypocalcemia.
Etiology of birth asphyxia
A- Intrauterine placental insufficiency:
1- Placenta previa.
2- Maternal hypotension.
3- Umbilical cord compression.
4 – Fetomaternal hemorrhage.
5- Erythroblstosis fetalis.

B- Intrapartum :
1- Birth trauma.
2- Hypoxia,ischemia.
3- Umbilical cord compression.
C- Postpartum :
1- CNS depression e.g :maternal medication.
2- Infection e.g :pneumonia.
3- Congenital neuromuscular disease e.g :myopathy.
4- Pulmonary disorder and airway disorder e.g :pulmonary hypoplasia, pneumothorax ,obstructing goiter.

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