Definition:  is a nutritionally adequate hypertonic solution consisting of three primary macronutrients and some micronutrients that is called “mixed fuel source”.

The 3 Macronutrients:

1.Carbohydrates – the primary source of energy in the body – 40 to 60% of daily caloric requirements & is essential to Central Nervous System function. The most common source is Dextrose and based on metabolic needs of the patients.

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Posted in Nursing Intervention, Nursing Management

Care of the Patient With a Neurological Disorder


Neurological Assessment

  • History
  • Headaches
  • Loss of function
  • Visual acuity
  • Seizures
  • Numbness
  • Pain
  • Personality change
  • Mood swing
  • Fatigue
  • Mental Status
  • Orientation
  • Mood and behavior
  • General knowledge
  • Short term memory
  • Long term memor
  • Level of consciousness
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Eye opening
  • Verbal response
  • Motor response
  • Language and Speech
  • Aphasia:
  • Sensory
  • Expressive
  • Global

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Posted in General, Neurology, Nursing Management Tagged with: , , ,

Analgesic narcotics


Article Objectives

  • Outline the gate theory of pain and explain therapeutic ways to block pain using the gate theory.
  • Describe the therapeutic actions, indications, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, most common adverse reactions, and important drug–drug interactions associated with narcotics .
  • Discuss the use of narcotics drugs across the lifespan.
  • Compare and contrast the prototype drugs morphine, pentazocine, naloxone.
  • Outline the nursing considerations, including important teaching points, for patients receiving a narcotic .

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Posted in Nursing Intervention, Nursing Management, Pharmacology Tagged with: , , , ,

Cardiovascular medications



Types of cardiovascular drugs

  • Positive inotropic drugs: increase the force of myocardial contraction
  • Negative inotropic drugs: decrease the force of myocardial contraction
  • Positive chronotropic drugs: increase heart rate by altering the rate of impulse formation at the SA node
  • Negative chronotropic drugs: decrease heart rate by altering the rate of impulse formation at the SA node
  • Positive dromotropic drugs: increase the conduction of electrical impulses
  • Negative dromotropic drugs: decrease the conduction of electrical impulses

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Posted in Cardiovascular, Nursing Intervention, Nursing Management, Pharmacology Tagged with: , , , , ,

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).




Stages Psychiatric interview

• Per-orientation

• Orientation

• Working

• Termination

Mental Health Team

• Psychiatric nurse

• Psychiatric social worker

• Psychiatrist

• Psychologist

• Psychiatric technician


  • Axis I: Clinical disorders, including major mental disorders, and learning disorders : Common Axis I disorders include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder,  anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and schizophrenia.
  • Axis II: Personality disorders and intellectual disabilities (although developmental disorders, such as Autism, were coded on Axis II in the previous edition, these disorders are now included on Axis I)
  • Axis III: Acute medical conditions and physical disorders
  • Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to the disorder
  • Global Assessment of Functioning or Children’s Global Assessment Scale for children and teens under the age of 18

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Posted in Psychiatry and Psychology Tagged with: , , ,

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